Practice Note 7C Guide for Operating and Financial Review

Cross-referenced from Rule 1204(4)

Part I Introduction

1. This Practice Note publishes the guide provided by the Council on Corporate Disclosure and Governance on the Operating and Financial Review in an annual report.
2. Issuers are encouraged to follow the OFR Guide, but it is not compulsory.

Part II OFR Guide

3. The OFR Guide is enclosed.

Guide for Operating and Financial Review


1. The objective of the Operating and Financial Review ("OFR") in annual reports is to provide users with an understanding of the company by providing an analysis of the company's businesses as seen through the eyes of the directors and management. The OFR serves to facilitate assessment of the company's business and business objectives, its principal drivers of performance, the dynamics of the business, and the performance and financial condition of the company.
2. Companies listed on the Singapore Exchange ("SGX") are currently required to include a discussion of their operating and financial performance and business outlook under the SGX listing rules1. This Guide provides a set of best practice guidance to listed companies in the preparation of the OFR in their annual reports, which will complement and supplement the financial statements.
3. The approach taken in this Guide is to set out general guidance, in the form of Principles and Guidelines, on the OFR, rather than to prescribe a set of mandatory rules or requirements. Adherence with the Guide is voluntary. The Principles set out in the Guide should be regarded as fundamental to the preparation of a good OFR. The Guidelines elaborate on how those principles can be applied.
4. Listed companies are encouraged to apply these best practices for disclosure of information in their OFRs. It is recognised that not all items in the guidelines may be relevant to all companies, as companies vary by size, industry group and other factors. The guidance should also not be regarded as a comprehensive list of the matters that might be considered by the directors and management to be relevant to an assessment of the company. The OFR should focus on those matters that are considered significant to that company as a whole. It is for the directors and management to decide how best to apply the framework of this Guide to the particular circumstances of the company.


1. The objective of the OFR is to provide users with a good understanding of the company by providing a historical and prospective analysis of the company's businesses as seen through the eyes of the directors and management. The OFR should assist the user's assessment of its performance and understanding of the future direction of the company. The OFR should focus on matters of significance to the company as a whole.
2. The focus of the OFR is on explanations and analysis. It should contain analytical description, rather than replicate information in the financial statements. It should discuss and interpret the performance and financial condition of the company, in the context of opportunities and risks impacting the operations of the company and known or reasonably expected changes in the environment in which it operates. The OFR should discuss known trends and factors relevant to forming a view as to likely future performance. An explanation of the trends and uncertainties known to be facing the company would not require a forecast of the outcome of such uncertainties. Rather, the explanation should be sufficient to permit readers of the financial report to form their own judgements of the outcomes of such uncertainties.
3. The benefits of particular disclosures should be balanced against any potential commercial risks to the company from the disclosure of commercially sensitive information. This Guide does not expect that disclosure be made by listed companies of information of a commercially prejudicial or sensitive nature that a reasonable person would not expect to be disclosed, for example where:—
(a) the information concerns a trade secret;
(b) the information concerns an incomplete proposal or negotiation; or
(c) information comprises matters of supposition and is insufficiently definite to warrant disclosure.
4 Information and analysis contained in the OFR should, as far as possible, be neutral and free from bias, dealing even-handedly with both good and bad aspects. The directors and management should ensure that material information is not omitted. Where the information in the OFR relates to financial information, it should be consistent with information in the audited financial statements. This should not be taken to mean that an audit of the OFR is required.


(A) Presentation of the OFR

Principle 1
1 The OFR should focus on matters that are relevant to investors. It should be easy for users of financial reports to understand.

1.1 The OFR should be written in a style that is clear and readily understood. It should avoid the use of technical language as far as possible. Figures and graphics may be useful to assist understanding of discussions in the OFR.
1.2 To facilitate reference to OFR disclosures by users of the annual report, it could be useful to include the key discussions of the OFR in a distinct, stand-alone section of the annual report. However, companies may decide that, in the context of the format of their annual report, it would be preferable to incorporate some of the discussion within other sections of the annual report, such as the Chairman's statement or the Chief Executive Officer's statement.
1.3 While the approach adopted for the presentation of the OFR may evolve over time, or differ from that adopted by other companies, disclosure should be sufficient for the user to be able to compare the information presented in the OFR of the company with that in previous periods, and with information about other companies in the same industry or sectors, where practical.
(B) Company Overview, Objectives and Strategy

Principle 2
2 The OFR should describe the nature of the company, its objectives and broad strategies, and explain the main areas of operation of the company's business, as context for the discussion and analysis of performance and financial position. The discussion in the OFR should cover the group business of the listed company, including its principal subsidiaries.

2.1 The OFR should discuss the objectives for the business and broadly, management's strategy for achieving them. Objectives may be defined in terms of financial performance. Non-financial objectives may also be discussed, where relevant.
2.2 Depending on the nature of the business, discussion of the company's business and operations might cover areas such as:—
•   the industries, locations and markets in which the company operates;
•   its main products and services, business processes and distribution methods, and intellectual property;
•   the structure of the company and main operating facilities; and
•   any significant changes to the legal, social, political and regulatory environments that influence the company.
Principle 3
3 The key financial and non-financial performance indicators used by management to assess the company and its performance should be discussed.

3.1 The OFR would normally include a range of financial and non-financial measures used to measure the company's performance. Comparability would be enhanced if the measures disclosed are accepted and widely used within the industry sector or more generally. Where practical, performance indicators should be compared with previous periods to outline trends.
3.2 The measures used should be defined, and the basis for calculation explained. Comparative amounts should be disclosed. Material changes in the financial measures disclosed, including significant changes in the underlying accounting policies applied, should be identified and explained. Comparative amounts should be restated on the new basis, where practical.
(C) Operating Review

Principle 4
4 The OFR should discuss the significant features of performance for the period covered by the financial report, focusing on the overall company as well as those business or geographic segments that are relevant to an understanding of the performance as a whole.

4.1 The OFR should identify and explain the main factors that affect the activities and performance of the company, and in particular discuss those that either have varied in the past or are expected to change in the future. Discussion of past performance should be supplemented by known trends and factors that are likely to affect future performance.
4.2 Key components of the result of operations should be discussed, including major sources of revenues, where appropriate. The OFR should also discuss any significant changes in capital employed. The OFR should discuss the results in comparison with prior periods and any projections publicly disclosed by the company.
4.3 The OFR should set out the analysis of any significant effect on performance of changes in the industry or the environment in which the company operates and of developments within the company, for example:—
•   changes in market conditions;
•   the introduction or announcement of new products and services;
•   new activities, discontinued activities and other acquisitions and disposals;
•   asset impairments; and
•   results of any material acquisition, and extent to which published expectations at the time of acquisition have been realised.
4.4 The analysis should cover any other special factors that have affected performance in the period under review, even where the effect cannot be quantified. Where unusual or infrequent events or transactions have affected the result for a period, the OFR should discuss their nature and impact on the company. The discussion should comment on the impact on future operations of significant post-balance sheet events. The OFR should enable users to assess the significance of the ongoing and core activities of the company and the sustainability of performance relating to those activities.
Principle 5
5 The OFR should discuss the dynamics and risk factors of the business. Guidelines
5.1 This should include a discussion identifying the significant opportunities, risks and threats facing the business, together with a commentary on the strategies and processes applied to managing them, and in qualitative terms, the nature of their potential impact on performance. Known factors and influences that may have a material effect on future performance and financial position, particularly within the 12 months from the date when the financial statements are authorised for issue, should be discussed.
5.2 A commentary on the strengths and resources of the business that should assist the company in the pursuit of its objectives would be useful. This could include items that are not reflected in the balance sheet, e.g corporate reputation and brand equity, licences, patents, copyrights and trademarks, and research and development.
Principle 6
6 The OFR should comment on investments and measures to maintain and enhance the position and profitability of the company.

6.1 The nature of activities and expenditure by the company to maintain and enhance the position and profitability of the company should be discussed. It could include description of major projects that involve capital expenditure being undertaken by the company. Qualitative information as to the benefits expected from such activities and expenditure could be given.
(D) Financial Review

Principle 7
7 The OFR should identify and explain significant matters which affect the company's financial condition. It should discuss the capital structure and capital management policies of the company, its treasury policy, the dynamics of the company's financial position and its funding and liquidity position.

7.1 The OFR should contain a discussion of the capital structure of the company, including the maturity profile of its debt, type of financial instruments used and currency and interest rate exposures. This could include comments on the company's debt rating and relevant ratios such as interest cover and debt/equity ratios. The purpose and effect of major financing transactions undertaken up to the date the financial statements are authorised for issue should be explained.
7.2 The discussion should cover the capital funding and treasury policies and objectives that are significant to the company's performance. The types of items that might be discussed include:—
•   the currencies in which borrowings are made and in which cash and cash equivalents are held;
•   maturity profile of borrowings and extent of fixed-rate borrowings;
•   mix between equity and debt financing;
•   significant investments held;
•   risk management policies;
•   hedging policies and the use of financial instruments for hedging;
•   use of special purpose entities and other off-balance sheet arrangements; and
•   capital management, including share buy-backs and capital restructuring.
7.3 To assist understanding of the cash flow and liquidity position of the company, the cash generated from operations, and other cash flows during the period under review should be discussed. The OFR should comment on any special factors that influenced cash flows in the current period and any known factors that may have a significant effect on future cash flows.
7.4 The company's liquidity and funding at the end of the period under review should be discussed. Discussion of significant funding requirements for capital expenditure and servicing of borrowings would be useful. The OFR could also comment on the level of borrowings, the seasonality of borrowing requirements, undrawn financing facilities and the maturity profile of both borrowings and undrawn committed borrowing facilities.
7.5 Where the company has entered into covenants with lenders which could have the effect of restricting the use of credit facilities and a material breach of a covenant has occurred or is expected to occur, the measures taken or proposed to remedy the situation should be disclosed.
7.6 To facilitate the user's understanding of the financial statements, it would be useful for the OFR to identify and discuss the critical accounting policies, estimates and judgements made that are key to the interpretation of the company's financial statements. Such information would be particularly relevant for areas where subjective judgements are involved or for companies with complex financial structures.
Principle 8
8 The OFR should discuss the overall return attributable to shareholders, including distributions and share repurchases.

8.1 All forms of shareholder returns, including share buy-backs, dividend distribution, other forms of return of capital and shareholder plans should be discussed and their effects should be explained. The OFR should also include a commentary on the various factors (including profitability) contributing to the dividend for the financial year, including the overall dividend policy.

1Rule 1204(4).